Publications

The undisputed technology leader in cooling solutions and water treatment since decades

As inventors of the world's leading dry cooling technologies, such as the Air-cooled Condenser and Heller® System, we expect ourselves to share the latest findings from our research with our partners for the continuous and sustainable further development of our technologies. 

The innovative and intelligent design of the unparalleled induced draft Air-cooled Condenser - InAIR®, our unqiue and leading position in Wet-to-Dry technology and the ability to install Deluge Cells are only a few of our latest innovations. 


German research underway on trickling filter practices

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Published on World Water, vol. 37, issue 5 - Trickling filter technology is one focus of a joint research project – EXPOVAL – funded by the German government that will validate engineering guidelines and optimum conditions for achieving high performance. Poor wastewater treatment is one of the biggest enemies of a safe and sustainable water supply all over the world. Next to frugal handling of existing water resources, the treatment of wastewater, sometimes towards future reuse, is important. Unfortunately, the elusive effects of improving water supply through groundwater recharge or surface water must be weighed against capital cost, cost of energy demand, and other variable costs of wastewater treatment facilities. With the costs per unit of energy... [read more about German research underway on trickling filter practices]

Higher Mass Transfer Performance

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Published on CHEManager Europe - One of the most important requirements of random or structured mass transfer beds is to provide an as large as possible effective surface for the mass transfer. Among other aspects, the effective surface depends on the interfacial tension between the fluid and the material properties of the surface of the transfer elements. The influence of the interfacial tension on the effective surface has been thoroughly analyzed, and corresponding empirical equations have been set up. It is known that water, in particular, because of its high surface tension wets plastic surfaces very badly. In some fundamental works this fact is sufficiently taken into account by material properties. For film type mass transfer elements in plastic it leads to a calculated degree of wettability of less than 50 % of the possible geometrical surface at usual flow... [read more about Higher Mass Transfer Performance]

Plume simulations of natural draft cooling towers

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This paper deals with the setup of numeric calculations to estimate the plume of natural draft cooling towers. The incorporation of several physical effects and boundary conditions and possible ways of measuring or estimating them will be introduced also. Finally, a best practice guide and a checklist are offered to ease up future simulations for... [read more about Plume simulation of natural draft cooling towers]

CO2 Reduction by Cooling Tower Retrofit Measures

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In the course of a cooling tower retrofit a cold-end-optimisation should be done. Due to installing best available technology of cooling fills a decrease of cooling water temperature and additional power output can be generated. The following consideration shows options of improvement and takes a look at... [read more about CO2 Reduction by Cooling Tower Retrofit Measures]

Time and Temperature Dependent Mechanical Behavior of PP Fills

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Published on CTI Biography of Technical Papers - Fills: Mechanical behavior of plastic components are not only dependent on the pure load or load case (e.g. bending vs. pure compression), but also on the loading time and temperature. The impact of these two factors will be discussed in this paper based on different testing results for polypropylene. Additionally a simplified viscoelastic model has been derived from that data to get a general idea for the engineering of plastic fills. [read more about Time and Temperature Dependent Mechanical Behavior of PP Fills]

Mechanical Behavior Of Polymer Fills

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Published on CTI Biography of Technical Papers - Fills: This paper will outline the mechanical properties of polymer fills and discuss the influence of different parameters (like design, foil thickness, PP vs PVC) as well as the influence of the boundary in cooling tower surrounding. [read more about Mechanical Behavior Of Polymer Fills]

Modular Splash Fill

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Published on CTI Biography of Technical Papers - Fills: This paper will discuss the benefits and thermal performance levels of modular splash fills vs. common film fill mediums in cooling towers and the change of those levels over the useful life of the fill. We will also examine the typical life cycle, durability and maintenance of modular splash fill. Last, we will review the advantage from being able to run at higher cycles of concentration, assistances for applications involving the use of gray water for makeup and for implementing in water conservation projects, which is vastly becoming a larger conversation topic due to the constant push from governing organizations. [read more about Modular Splash Fill]

Flame Retardance of Polymer Film Fills

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Published on CTI Biography of Technical Papers - Fills: While PVC is long known as a flame retardant polymer, other plastics have the reputation of high flammability. Whereas this is true for standard polyolefin materials, modern polypropylene products with high efficient flame retardant additives can even beat the good fire properties of normal PVC.In this study film fills for cooling towers made of PVC and of a flame retardant PP are tested by several different methods and international standards to evaluate the actual performance of these two materials. [read more about Flame Retardance of Polymer Film Fills]